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  • The Adoration of the Shepherds – The use of reality and reflection to generate two separate paintings. This is the largest group found to be used in this way. Rembrandt's position is constant in the barn in which this scene was almost certainly set. The complexity of the group and its spatial constancy make it near impossible that a mirror was not the means used.
  • The Mirrors – Rembrandt's simple use of reality and reflection in one drawing.
  • The Unworthy Wedding Guest – Rembrandt's shorthand/handwriting reveals the thoughts of the protagonists and his own creative process as he observes.
  • Missed Opportunities and Misjudgements The dangers of Wolfflin as a guide to quality in art.
  • The Great Lion Hunt – The use of a sculpture to explain a surprise. Also examples of the variability of Rembrandt in an etching.


  • The Dismissal of Hagar - Rembrandt made 11 drawings and one etching from one seat in his studio. He dated the etching 1637 and signed on the plate. The scholars have assigned dates to the unmarked drawings none of which are 1637 indeed one has been assigned the date of 1656. furthermore they are prepared to deattribute drawings that do not conform to their hypothetical and obviously erroneous stylistic methods. They are looking in the wrong direction for an entirely different kind of artist: an inventor rather than an observer.

Taken from Nigel Konstam's Ebook: An Alternative History of Art, available for free on